Antigua Fieldtrip 2012


USE THIS STUDENT GUIDE AS YOUR FIRST POINT OF REFERENCE. TICK ALL THE BOXES TO ENSURE THAT YOU INCLUDE EVERYTHING IN YOUR INTERNAL ASSESSMENT.



Front Page


The following things should be on your front page:
  • Your name
  • Your candidate number
  • Your school code
  • Your word count (less than 2,500 words)
  • Your research question e.g. "To assess the impacts of tourism and/or globalisation on Antigua."

Introduction


Section A: Fieldwork question and geographic context


This criterion assesses the focus and geographic context of the fieldwork and whether the fieldwork question is related to the material in the syllabus.
Marks
Level descriptor
0
The work does not reach the standard described by the descriptors below.
1
The fieldwork question is inappropriate, or the geographic context or locational map or relationship to the syllabus is missing.
2
The fieldwork question is adequate with an acceptable attempt made to place it in its geographic context and relate it to the syllabus. A locational map is presented.
3
The fieldwork question is well focused with a detailed, accurate explanation of the geographic context and is related to the syllabus. A good locational map is presented.

In your introduction you must include the following:
  • A map and description of the study location (Antigua)
  • Your research question again. This should be referred to in the text.
  • Your hypothesis (I recommend three). Keep your hypothesis clear, short and simple (see below for some examples). Once you have chosen your hypothesis check with your teacher to see if they are OK. Make sure your hypothesis are SMART (S=Specific, M=Measurable, A=Achievable, R=Realistic, T=Time=related). I would always number or bullet point and then indent them in your text to make them stand out. For example:

  1. The number of hotels will increase as you move away from the Plaza Mayor.
  2. The number of restaurants will increase as you move towards the Plaza Mayor.
  3. The traffic will increase as you move towards Plaza Mayor
  4. Tourist land use will increase as you move towards Plaza Mayor or residential land use will increase as you move away from Plaza Mayor
  5. Pedestrians will increase as you move towards Plaza Mayor
  6. The price of basic food stuffs will increase as you move towards Plaza Mayor
  7. The environment will get worse as you move away from Plaza Mayor
  8. Globalisation will increase as you move towards Plaza Mayor
  9. Most tourist will come from Central America

  • Try and relate your hypothesis to geographical theory. If you are looking at globalisation you can obviously introduce the concept of globalisation. For everything else you probably want to introduce tourism. What is tourism, how big is tourism (can you find any figures for Guatemala or Antigua). Also introduce the idea of a TBD (tourist business district) The leisure hierarchy and intra-urban patterns. This is just like a CBD, but instead of commerce and retail being the main land use, tourist facilities are.
  • Using the theory, explain what you expect to find e.g. I think there will be more pedestrians near the Plaza Mayor because there will be a lot of tourists visiting the sites around the square.
  • Relate your hypothesis to the specification i.e. Leisure, sport and tourism optional topic or economic interactions and flows, global interactions at a local level or sociocultural exchanges in the higher level global interactions topic.

Data Collection


Section B: Method(s) of investigation


This criterion assesses the description, justification and appropriateness of the method(s) used to investigate the fieldwork question.
Marks
Level descriptor
0
The work does not reach the standard described by the descriptors below.
1
There is only a brief description of the method(s) used for information collection, and the method(s) are generally inappropriate for the investigation of the fieldwork question.
2
There is an adequate description but limited justification of the method(s) used for information collection. The method(s) used are generally appropriate for the investigation of the fieldwork question.
3
There is a clear description and justification of the method(s) used for information collection. The method(s) used are well suited to the investigation of the fieldwork question.

In your data collection section, you need to describe how you collected the data. You should talk about the following:
  • The dates you collected data (Wednesday 16th May to Saturday 19th May 2012).
  • In your appendix include maps showing the survey locations and the group study areas. If they are small you can include them in the body of your text.
  • Is the data you collected primary or secondary? What is good/bad about primary/secondary data
  • That you were split into four groups and each group was given an area. You can list groups and certainly include a map showing the areas. Both of these can go in the appendix but should be referred to in your text.
  • Describe what data you collected. It is important that you only describe data that is relevant to your hypothesis. If you describe every technique it uses up your word count and gets you no extra marks. Remember to include examples of the forms. These can be imbedded in your text or included in the appendix. If they are in the appendix, remember that you must refer to them.
  • Explain simple things like why you did a tally chart, why you only did a 10 minute sample or why you used closed questions in the questionnaire.
  • Try and refer to a sampling technique. You may have attempted a systematic technique with the questionnaires e.g. every 10 people. This probably didn't work and the sample became more random. With the land use you only selected local and tourists services, not every land use. Also the survey locations are systematically picked.
  • Remember to describe how distances were calculated from the Plaza Mayor (Google Earth - read instructions below).
  • If you are describing the globalisation and environmental indexes you must explain what bi-polar scoring is. A positive score means an area is relatively globalised or has as a nice environment, a negative score means that it has a bad environment or is not globalised. You should also mention that these indexes are very subjective (everyone has a different opinion). To try an minimise the subjective nature, the whole group of four or five students had to agree each score. However, this does not eliminate differences between groups.
  • If you choose shopping explain why you picked the 10 items on the survey. Explain what you did if your product was not there.






Please note that the maps above are taken from the following webpage: http://maximizetravel.wordpress.com/2011/12/01/guatemala/

Data Collection Forms Used in Antigua


You can imbed these in your text if it looks neat and tidy or you can put them in your appendix at the back of your internal assessment. You must refer to them when describing the data collection techniques that you have used.










Results: https://docs.google.com/a/abc-net.edu.sv/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AkSK_aesHdmLdGUxa2k1Umt5WW1ic0xtazlTSmpvRnc#gid=0

Data Presentation


Section C: Quality and treatment of information collected


This criterion assesses the quality of information collected and its suitability for analysis in criterion D, and whether appropriate techniques have been used for both the treatment and display of information.
Marks
Level descriptor
0
The work does not reach the standard described by the descriptors below.
1
Limited or inappropriate information has been collected and very little attempt has been made to treat or display the information collected.
2
Some relevant information has been collected and some attempt has been made to treat or display the information collected.
3
The information collected is generally relevant to the fieldwork question and allows for some analysis. Limited techniques have been used for both the treatment and display of information collected.
4
The information collected is generally relevant to the fieldwork question and is sufficient in quantity and quality to allow for analysis. Appropriate techniques have been used for both the treatment and display of information collected.
5
The information collected is directly relevant to the fieldwork question and is sufficient in quantity and quality to allow for in‑depth analysis. The most appropriate techniques have been used effectively for both the treatment and display of information collected.

If any of your hypotheses relate to distances and changes from the Plaza Mayor, you will need to calculate them. Distance are very good for looking at relationships and changes spatially. The best way of looking at relationships e.g. traffic and distance is a scattergrapah and then doing a Spearman's rank statistical test.

When presenting data it is very important to use a variety of presentation techniques. Any data presented must be relevant and help prove or disprove your hypotheses. All presented data must be clearly labelled and referred to in your text.

Possible data presentation techniques include:

Graphs: Bar, line, pie or scatter (scatter graphs are the best graphs for showing relationships). Graphs can be produced by hand or on Excel.
Tables: Showing a summary of results.
Photographs: Showing examples of globalisation, poor environment. Again must be relevant and labelled. Photographs should not just be photos of your friends.
Maps: You have to include maps in your internal assessment and you must show evidence of manipulating a map. You may manipulate a map on the computer or by hand. You might show proportional flow lines on a map or proportional shapes. You may consider an overlay map as well.
Map with Proportional Shapes
Map with Proportional Shapes

Map with proportional Flow Lines
Map with proportional Flow Lines

Map with Bar Graph
Map with Bar Graph


Field sketches: Field sketches are usually used in physical coursework so it is unlikely that you will use these.
Sketch maps: You probably won't need to include these because you can find plenty of street plan maps off the internet. However, if you think they are relevant it does demonstrate another skill.

Data Analysis


Section D: Written analysis


This criterion assesses the quality of the analysis of the results, referring to the fieldwork question, geographic context, information collected and illustrative material.
Marks
Level descriptor
0
The work does not reach the standard described by the descriptors below.
1–2
The report reveals very limited knowledge and understanding. The approach is descriptive with little or no attempt at analysis.
3–4
The report reveals some knowledge and understanding. There is an attempt at analysis, which may be incomplete or superficial, making little or no reference to the fieldwork question, geographic context, information collected and illustrative material.
5–6
The report reveals an adequate level of knowledge and understanding. There is an adequate level of analysis, which generally refers to the fieldwork question, geographic context, information collected and illustrative material.
7–8
The report reveals a good level of knowledge and understanding. There is a well-reasoned, detailed analysis of the results with references to the fieldwork question, geographic context, information collected and illustrative material. There is an attempt to explain any anomalies in results.
9–10
The report reveals a very good level of knowledge and understanding. There is a clear and well‑reasoned, detailed analysis of the results with strong references to the fieldwork question, geographic context, information collected and illustrative material. The attempt to explain any anomalies in results is good.

In terms of marks this is the most important section of your internal assessment. You may do your data analysis in a completely different section or i prefer to see it integrated. This means that after every group of maps, graphs or tables (relating to one hypotheses you then analyse them) Things that you must do include:

  • Look for trends and anomalies (use figures to support your claims). Without figures you will not get more than 4 out of 10.
  • Refer to every graph, table or map that you have made. If you do not refer to them the graph, table and map is pointless and can be taken out of your internal assessment. In order to refer to a graph, table or map they must be clearly labelled e.g. figure 1.2
  • You must refer back to your hypotheses by proving or disproving them or even partially proving them. Again use figures to show this.
  • Look for anomalies. If you find anomalies try and explain them e.g. was the traffic count on a main road, was the environmental index next to a derelict building, was the pedestrian count next to a major tourist location, was a road closed.
  • Think about adding labelled photographs to support your trends or explain your anomalies.
  • Try and relate your findings back to the theory that you mentioned in the introduction. Did your theory support your findings?
  • You must use statistical analysis. The most straightforward is Spearman's (see example below). You will need to the distances from Plaza Mayor to calculate spearman's. Remember to describe how the distances were calculated in your data collection section.

To get the best marks on the data analysis you need to carry out some statistical technique. The easiest technique when you have two independent variable e.g. distance from Plaza Mayor and number of pedestrians is spearman's rank (correlation). You should have learnt this in class, if you haven't or have forgotten, please find a basic worked example below:
external image spearmans_rank_order_correlation_coefficient_1.png


The formula above may look complicated, but in reality it is quite simple. If you use spearman's in your internal assessment, you must include the calculations.

Distance From Plaza Mayor
Rank (rank from nearest to furthest)
Number of Taxis
Rank (rank from most to least)
Difference in Rank
Difference in Rank Squared
34
3
14
1
2
4
58
4
11
4
0
0
24
2
13
2
0
0
112
6
9
6
0
0
345
10
2
10
0
0
22
1
13
2
1
1
285
8
7
8
0
0
138
7
9
6
1
1
311
9
5
9
0
0
98
5
11
4
1
1




TOTAL
7
Please note if two sets of the data have the same figure, you give them equal rank. For example in the table above, 11 taxis appear twice, therefore 11 taxis are ranked equal 4th. Because there are two 4ths the next rank is 6th (9 taxis in the table above).

In the formula 6 never changes.

6 x 7 = 42 (seven is the sum of the difference in rank squared)

n is the number of sets of data. In the example above there are 10 sets of data.

n squared = 100

10x(100-1) = 990

42/990 =0.042

1 - 0.042 = 0.958

Spearman's rank is 0.958

In Geography anything with a 95% certainty is considered is considered to show a correlation. Below is the graph for calculating the certainty of your results. If we look at the graph below we can see that a rank of 0.958 with 8 sets (10 - 2) of data has a certainty of over 99.9% of there being a correlation. A figure of below 95% doesn't mean that there is no correlation, in fact your scattergraph may show a positive or negative correlation, it just says that the likelihood of the correlation is less.

The correlation above is actually a very strong negative correlation. As the distance from the Plaza Mayor increases, the number of taxis decreases.

external image SpearmansRank8.gif


Conclusion


Section E: Conclusion


This criterion assesses the ability of the student to summarize the findings of the fieldwork investigation.
Marks
Level descriptor
0
The work does not reach the standard described by the descriptors below.
1
There is some attempt to draw a conclusion to the fieldwork question, which may not be completely consistent with the analysis.
2
There is a clear conclusion to the fieldwork question, consistent with the analysis.

In your conclusion you summarise what you have learnt. First you should confirm if your hypotheses were proved or not proved, remember it doesn't matter if they were disproved, because you have learnt just as much. Select what bit of data best supports this finding and refer back to it. Then say what you have learnt about the impacts of tourism and/or globalisation on Antigua. You should also again refer back to theory and mention how your research relates to theory. Finally you should refer back to your research and state what your investigation has proven e.g. tourism increases traffic and prices, but improves the environment.

Evaluation


Section F: Evaluation


This criterion assesses the student’s ability to review the investigative methodology.
Marks
Level descriptor
0
The work does not reach the standard described by the descriptors below.
1
There is either some attempt to evaluate methods of collecting fieldwork information or some suggestion is made for improvement or extension.
2
Methods of collecting fieldwork information have been evaluated or there are valid recommendations for improvements or extensions.
3
Methods of collecting fieldwork information have been evaluated clearly. There are valid and realistic recommendations for improvements or extensions. There may be some suggestions for modifying the fieldwork question.

In the evaluation you talk about what went well, but more importantly what could be improved and how your internal assessment could be extended in the future. Things to think about include:

  • Reducing the subjective nature of environmental and globalisation indexes by one group doing them all or taking an average of several groups.
  • May be carry out a pilot survey (a test) on the questionnaire to see if any questions could have been added or taken away
  • Trying to synchronise traffic and pedestrian counts all at the same time e.g. 0900 and 1500.
  • Spending more time recording accurate shopping data i.e. location of shops and bigger survey sample
  • Collecting a more representative tourist sample (very hard if people refuse).
  • Interviewing shopping keeps or local residents to ask their opinions on tourism and globalisation
  • Having more survey locations
  • Repeating surveys and questionnaires on a weekend or during a holiday
  • Try and obtain some secondary data from hotels or tour companies.

Formal Requirements


Section G: Formal requirements


This criterion assesses the extent to which the student meets the five formal requirements of writing, organizing and presenting the written report.
  • The work is within the 2,500 word limit.
  • Overall presentation is neat and well structured.
  • Pages are numbered.
  • References used for background information follow standard conventions. (Guidance on referencing is given in the earlier section on secondary information.)
  • All illustrative material is numbered, is fully integrated into the body of the report and is not relegated to an appendix.
Marks
Level descriptor
0
The work exceeds the 2,500 word limit or meets none of the other formal requirements.
1
The work is within the 2,500 word limit and meets one of the other formal requirements.
2
The work is within the 2,500 word limit and meets two of the other formal requirements.
3
The work is within the 2,500 word limit and meets three of the other formal requirements.
4
The work is within the 2,500 word limit and meets the other four formal requirements.
  • The most important thing is to keep your word count under 2,500. Read the instructions below so you know what is and is not included in your word count. The word count should be clearly stated on your front cover



  • A contents page and clearly numbered pages (can be done by hand)
  • You include a bibliography`and any maps, diagrams, figures (that you have not collected) are clearly referenced.
  • All tables, graphs, photos, maps, etc. are clearly labelled and numbered.
  • You include front page with name, word count, candidate number, school number and research title. You may include a photo on the front as well.
  • The internal assessment is clearly structured with use of sub-headings. Obviously you should check your spelling and write in sentences and paragraphs.

Referencing


You can use any referencing style, as long as you are consistent throughout your internal assessment. For more information about the APA style of referencing visit: Plagiarism and Referencing

Remember everything that is not yours must be referenced (maps, photos, facts, etc.). If you don't reference you lose marks in the formal requirements section of the internal assessment, but more importantly the IB may consider that you have plagiarised and award you zero marks. You don't not have to reference any graphs you make yourself or any data that we collected as a group.

Other Things


  • You may want to add an acknowledgement page thanking your parents, peers, teachers.
  • Most of you will need to include an appendix to place examples of all the data collection forms. If you use an appendix all the forms must be clearly labelled and referred to in your text. If your Spearman's calculations are long, you may also want to include these in your appendix. You will definitely have to include the significance graph from above.